Elemental bromine is a reddish-brown liquid with a specific gravity approximately three times that of water. It is a strong oxidizing agent, is corrosive, and requires special handling. Bromide ions are present in brines, seawater, and bitterns (liquors left after extraction of other products). Well brines are the most common bromine source, since their high concentration of bromide makes their recovery the most economical. The largest end use for bromine is in flame retardants and fire extinguishing agents. The second most important downstream bromine market is in clear brine fluids, which are used primarily in unconventional oil production. Bromine is also used in water treatment for swimming pools and spa applications, and some industrial water treatment too. Halogenated hydantoins are the second-largest class of biocides after chlorinated isocyanurates.


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